>> endobj /ExtGState 50 0 R 2016-06-02T12:59:07-04:00 Interpretation of the Output Descriptive Statistics The first output from the analysis is a table of descriptive statistics for all the variables under investigation. Move all three variables into the Variables box. For this to be understandable, however, it is necessary to discuss the theory behind factor analysis. /Parent 3 0 R /S /URI Descriptives. /Parent 3 0 R stream >> e+��a7��ێbF}~��9�(��.t`Dg�Ī� �.l. The number of factors “worth keeping” ranges Correlation coefficients range from -1.0 (a perfect negative correlation) to positive 1.0 (a perfect positive correlation). Varimax Method. /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /ImageI /Text] >> >> 20 0 obj /ExtGState 46 0 R Rotation. endobj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] endobj Field (2005) … /ExtGState 84 0 R >> /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> Sample size: Sample size should be more than 200. SPSS for Intermediate Statistics : Use and Interpretation. /Parent 3 0 R ̞W�Pm5Ծ�Eh9�Q(��2�ʜ�)�h�@��1ѬC(-�[�c� �Ɋ㰶�:�W�s,EA]M����B\���F`�fY_����pL��I�1�d�k�-�5r�T��3����N�ӷ���mτu�������7Ta�ﱷ�oʹ��֧�"̏'M��b�НP��N���VY@�O>���)Y�(��}�V���v��=�bKh�vOP �l�;�~l��;��D�Ν�v�Z&���V2\aPH%��=��c>���_���� )�ZYp����� _�&uY��ǒ�P̀!�X�B8hqNs�E�Ble����J�����D�4����h�xM,��Ag�ڥ]�;�:�ÁmF�Ү� �XQfH��X#���V)cͰ��Oa 9Ѱ�P9}�ȯdS��{$�T��w��L���Z��VO����;e�ﬞ���j��)��O�K}XmEtR����ã��P���OPN��II��ݮe���5q��0����AȊ'��Z�.���Y����v��.���&C Q.�D�G�Q\�E�X���sNy��. 2. /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /Text] endobj >> /Author (cousined) /Parent 3 0 R The general form of a bivariate regression equation is “Y = a + bX.” SPSS calls the Y variable the “dependent” variable and the X variable the “independent variable.” I think this notation is misleading, since regression analysis is frequently used with data collected by nonexperimental /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] << SPSS will extract factors from your factor analysis. /Border [0 0 0] << /XObject 36 0 R In factor analysis, it is possible to have more than one factor (unlike in multiple regression where there is only one regression equation). Contact us for help with your data analysis and interpretation. /Contents 23 0 R Review your options, and click the OK button. This paper. A Simple Explanation… Factor analysis is a statistical procedure used to identify a small number of factors that can be used to represent relationships among sets of interrelated variables. /F 128 /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /XObject 41 0 R 31 Full PDFs related to this paper. Assumptions: 1. Factor-analysis-spss-output-interpretation-pdf /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 54 0 R … /M (D:20160602125852-04'00') EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS: USING SPSS. Typically, the mean, standard deviation and number of respondents (N ) who ... Lecture 11: Factor Analysis using SPSS 7 Rotated Component (Factor… /PXCViewerInfo (PDF-XChange Viewer;2.5.311.0;Oct 28 2014;17:32:56;D:20160602125907-04'00') /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /Text] /Resources << /Type /Page Factor Analysis Researchers use factor analysis for two main purposes: Development of psychometric measures (Exploratory Factor Analysis - EFA) Validation of psychometric measures (Confirmatory Factor Analysis – CFA – cannot be done in SPSS, you have to use e.g., Amos or Mplus). If the factor were measurable directly (which it 12 0 obj << endobj /Type /Page /Resources << /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] /Subtype /Link Ask for Pearson and Spearman coefficients, two-tailed, flagging significant coefficients. Click OK. Look at the output. Interpretation of output from SPSS OUTPUT 1: Scan the correlation coefficients and look for any greater than 0.9. Finally, some critical issues concerning the appropriate (and not-so-appropriate) use of factor analysis … endobj 14 0 obj The broad purpose of factor analysis is to summarize data so that relationships and patterns can be easily interpreted and … C8057 (Research Methods II): Factor Analysis on SPSS Dr. Andy Field Page 5 10/12/2005 Interpreting Output from SPSS Select the same options as I have in the screen diagrams and run a factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. /Parent 3 0 R >> %PDF-1.3 What Is Factor Analysis? High values (close to 1.0) generally indicate that a factor analysis may be useful with your data. /M (D:20160602125600-04'00') /Name /FromClipBoard11822598 /Resources << The principles of reliability analysisreliability analysis and how to carry it out in SPSS. /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /ImageI /Text] Conducting a Path Analysis With SPSS/AMOS Download the PATH-INGRAM.sps data file from my SPSS data page and then bring it into SPSS. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output. In the ¯rst, one set of loadings ¯ ij. ��/���˯��+K~#^H��?�Vx��s��?��(��-�]�K�=��^��Y��o��)]�� 1 Factor Analysis Factor analysis attempts to bring inter-correlated variables together under more general, underlying variables. Books giving further details are listed at the end. Interpreting SPSS Correlation Output Correlations estimate the strength of the linear relationship between two (and only two) variables. endobj )’ + Running the analysis << Advanced Models module (Manual: SPSS 11.0 Advanced Models): This includes methods for ﬁtting general linear models and linear): /Font 48 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /Text] Analysis/factor analysis. 22 0 obj In some cases, sample size may be considered for 5 observations per … /Type /Page /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Factor Analysis Spss Output Interpretation PDF - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Be able to carry out a Principal Component Analysis factor/analysis using the psych package in R. Be able to demonstrate that PCA/factor analysis can be undertaken with either raw data or a set of … Factor analysis and SPSS: Factor analysis can be performed in SPSS by clicking on “analysis” from menu, and then selecting “factor” from the data reduction option. /NM (8938fdc6-c49a-464c-8c4cfb08c893f3fa) /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Factor analysis reporting Example of factor analysis method section reporting The method followed here was to first examine the personal characteristics of the participants with a view to selecting a subset of characteristics that might influence further responses. >> /XObject 61 0 R %��������� SPSS Tutorial AEB 37 / AE 802 Marketing Research Methods Week 7. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Statistics: 3.3 Factor Analysis Rosie Cornish. 9 0 obj 6. >> Our goal is to ensure that the reader has a complete understanding of the output, which will greatly enhance his or her ability to accurately interpret factor analysis. /Font 24 0 R /Type /Pages /ExtGState 62 0 R Factors will be located in the SPSS output file. If the value is less than 0.50, the results of the factor analysis probably won't be very useful. /Parent 3 0 R Factor Analysis Rachael Smyth and Andrew Johnson Introduction Forthislab,wearegoingtoexplorethefactoranalysistechnique,lookingatbothprincipalaxisandprincipal << /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageB /Text] You should already know how to conduct a multiple linear regression analysis using SAS, SPSS, or a similar general statistical software package. /ExtGState 88 0 R /Contents 85 0 R data and getting SPSS to accomplish the analysis of the data. << >> x��]ݳ%7q/��ޥ���$�s 1ܳ����0�@B�*�\�����T�*���*�i��Ԛ9g��~��t�����_��I��������ϾX�������/�==|���}�N���/�����+�p�����x�BXg���Խ������������o]^�iѫx�����ey����2����7/JMΨ���奛g�}xty��uu^?��C�]i�]y��奙�w�lѳ�|�A�n�5P�P,�+��&��b25�~//�.q�_]��}x�+�������e�ܺ��Ț���i�����FU@�{yI;��`���K���w!j-="��//������{n!ZⲨ�_��C�I[�����k���I�m���. >> << /Resources << /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> Be able explain the process required to carry out a Principal Component Analysis/Factor analysis. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] 8 0 obj /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R 21 0 obj Interpreting SPSS ANOVA Output Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests for differences in the mean of a variable across two or more groups. cousined << Here are the scoring coefficients: Look back at your data … IBM SPSS Statistics 23 is well-suited for survey research, though by no means is it limited to just this topic of exploration. READ PAPER. Factor Analysis (EFA) How to run EFA in SPSS Interpreting Output of EFA in SPSS . /Parent 3 0 R These groups are … /P 5 0 R /Contents 29 0 R /Contents 63 0 R stream SPSS, R, SAS. Involves several steps and decision points. 1 0 obj Then, survey responses were analysed at the item level, using figures, tables, or text alone, to provide a first impression. 2. Now, with 16 input variables, PCA initially extracts 16 factors (or “components”). >> /Producer (Nitro PDF PrimoPDF) However, don’t be alarmed if you have an earlier version of SPSS (e.g., Versions 12.0 or 13.0), since the look and feel of SPSS hasn’t changed much over the last three versions. Finally, we provide a careful explanation of each table and graph in the SPSS output. /Contents 73 0 R Variables used should be metric. %���� /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] The data are those from the research that led to this publication: Ingram, K. L., Cope, J. G., Harju, B. L., & Wuensch, K. L. (2000). In the Factor Analysis window, click Scores and select Save As Variables, Regression, Display Factor Score Coefficient Matrix. /XObject 49 0 R /XObject 87 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /ImageI /Text] endobj /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Interpretation of Factor Analysis using SPSS. Factor analysis in Spss 1. /Rect [432 741.6 558.75 755.85] Complete the following steps to interpret a factor analysis. Chapter 17: Exploratory factor analysis Smart Alex’s Solutions Task 1 Rerun’the’analysis’in’this’chapterusing’principal’componentanalysis’and’compare’the’ results’to’those’in’the’chapter.’(Setthe’iterations’to’convergence’to’30. %PDF-1.4 << /ExtGState 53 0 R ... Click on Analyze, Data Reduction, Factor …., to open the Factor Analysis dialogue box: Move the six variables over to the Variables: box. /A << SPSS produces a lot of data for the one-way ANOVA test. << /Type /Annot An orthogonal rotation method that minimizes the number of variables that have high loadings on each factor. >> /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Figure 5 The first decision you will want to make is whether to perform a principal components analysis or a principal factors analysis. /Type /Page In This Topic. 10 0 obj In the Factor Analysis window, click Scores and select Save As Variables, Regression, Display Factor Score Coefficient Matrix. Newsom, Spring 2017, Psy 495 Psychological Measurement 14. This method simplifies the interpretation of the factors. /XObject 70 0 R << 16 0 obj << >> /Font 35 0 R With both Pearson and Spearman, the … /Resources << /F 132 /Contents 81 0 R stream /Font 74 0 R /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI /Text] PrimoPDF http://www.primopdf.com A sample of SPSS ANOVA … example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. You should also understand how to interpret the output from a multiple linear regression analysis. Step 7: The next article will discuss the interpretation of its output i.e. /Type /Catalog Home | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations It’s worth having a quick glance at the descriptive statistics generated by SPSS. PCA-SPSS.docx Principal Components Analysis - SPSS In principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) one wishes to extract from a set of p variables a reduced set of m components or factors that accounts for most of the variance in the p variables.In other words, we wish to reduce a set of p variables to a set of m underlying superordinate dimensions. >> >> endobj >> endobj THE THEORY BEHIND FACTOR ANALYSIS As the goal of this paper is to show and explain the use of factor analysis in SPSS, the 1.6The Output Viewer 1.7The Chart Editor 1.8Programming in SPSS 2 Data Description and Simple Inference for Continuous Data: The Lifespans of Rats and Ages at Marriage in the U.S. 2.1Description of Data 2.2Methods of Analysis. If you are unsure how to interpret your PCA results, or how to check for linearity, carry out transformations using SPSS Statistics, or conduct additional PCA procedures in SPSS Statistics such as Forced Factor Extraction (see Step #4), we show you how to do this in our enhanced PCA guide. /Resources << /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /N 90 0 R These loadings, how-ever, may not agreewith thepriorexpectations, or may not lend themselves to a reasonable interpretation. /ExtGState 28 0 R Cluster Analysis • It is a class of techniques used to classify cases into groups that are relatively homogeneous within themselves and heterogeneous between each other, on the basis of a defined set of variables. /Type /Page 4 0 obj Each component has a quality score called an Eigenvalue.Only components with high Eigenvalues are likely to represent a real underlying factor. /Font 69 0 R 13 0 obj /Font 40 0 R << to meet the m inimum level for interpretation of To standardize the ballistic consistency test data reliability analysis and enhance the Factor Analysis Using SPSS The theory of factor analysis was described in your lecture, or read Field (2005) Chapter 15. in large. Cluster analysis Lecture / Tutorial outline • Cluster analysis • Example of cluster analysis • Work on the assignment. Once there, you will need to scroll over to the last column to see the Mahalanobis results for all 44 variables. /T (Tous) �����L��=~?f�W�}-|��"O�L܀�ͣ�{����+�I���� ��L�w_�:�菐�=Q`m�/Wr`������(��f��t����v��g]��{�� 況���/x�h`�-6ov�����͟ӧ�/��������n��ь;���z{ٷ��s�?_n�[�Ӿ��Nχ}+D�U���+Ƃ=3s�:��J��|�A���;kȵp��|���v���E�m�)vv@G��ۑ������s~U��Ǡ���Zw�����HX���f�W�g�o�qO�����1������~\{9�p�!��Ђ�����s�G?��S'�B�J 'N�����ҧ)�9rY�&�8�_���ޫ�9����,8�|Fd� �?1�jk�4�����{������E"3�$&���u�Pvc��Q|5e�(C��9:=B�Sp2a��4p ����������: ]R{���:.�0s#�2�����z����G'�"g�����G��(4���D�Y�q� �z#�C��Y�(�� ���2���1�u}�G�� #��B>��%!�݇�$a��C�wߛ��4�:��� 7��bI%�Y�Z����j3w+`��E�4�bΜf��N�碵ڟ���Q�'�U�ҞJ����x|��6�DI�mM��x�р�9�1>F��1;IN:X���R���1g Here one should note that Notice that the first factor accounts for 46.367% of the variance, the second 18.471% and the third 17.013%. >> /Contents 39 0 R /Contents 59 0 R /Contents 26 0 R OUTPUT 2: Kaiser and Bartlett test- The KMO statistic varies between 0 and 1. /Subj (Stamp) /Resources << 2. /C [1 0 0] Cluster interpretation through mean component values • Cluster 1 is very far from profile 1 (-1.34) and more similar to profile 2 (0.38) • Cluster 2 is very far from profile 5 (-0.93) and Small values (less than … /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageC /ImageI /Text] endobj >> Download PDF. This handout provides basic instructions on how to answer research questions and test hypotheses using linear regression (a technique which examines the … With ANOVA, the independent variable can have as many levels as desired. Factor-analysis-spss-output-interpretation-pdf /Parent 3 0 R Factor Analysis Researchers use factor analysis for two main purposes: Development of psychometric measures (Exploratory Factor Analysis - EFA) Validation of psychometric measures (Confirmatory Factor Analysis – CFA – cannot be done in SPSS, you have to use … Method. /Type /Page /Type /Page >> For example, COMPUTER USE BY TEACHERS is a broad construct that can have a number of FACTORS (use for testing, provides techniques for the analysis of multivariate data, speciﬁcally for factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis (see Chapters 11 and 12). /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Be able to select and interpret the appropriate SPSS output from a Principal Component Analysis. factor /variables item13 item14 item15 item16 item17 item18 item19 item20 item21 item22 item23 item24 … /Filter [/FlateDecode] << >> Deciding on the number of factors. Interpretation of Factor Analysis using SPSS. The closer correlation coefficients get to -1.0 or 1.0, the stronger the correlation. /Font 86 0 R Step 1: Determine the number of factors ; Step 2: Interpret the factors; Step 3: Check your data for problems ; Step 1: Determine the number of factors . x�}Y�$Ǒ�{�� �z�2"�`F0���j�#=��j6H�x�����m�qdduD�UՕV�nnf���{|�����i;��o�ákN���zm.g�����O�w�/�cۼ��9�?��������~h����v=5��q=��}���m�Lb��~���w��д�ۯ��h^��M�þk^�����#��ov��G��/��_+�����W_��~�`����o���_�����K?�#��Ҽ8I���������[��r�s�?��^硑y M��w�3��y������K3�������Vr�����,�h����S�J�3��cw������ ��nü�>ڳ,!�^J~�Q{۟:�T�ASr]i� ���*����q�d���_[��Lӡ ��bl��F�"%I��Ը�]9�h�Lb~F��~fk8�L�h\�'Uq ��Kq]#p�q]�A����gq]h,Zg�bP�)Yd����R�L�Mx�T̒mu��"�6_�,hA�e� �Q���d�8�:h�ZH&I�x,�+.l�g���j�X��A��fXy�X�I�R�$�s��x�*�BN� 2@�dQ1߾� ߩ��6(}���T�G���u�! endobj /ExtGState 32 0 R /XObject 75 0 R Obviously the variables must also be at least moderately correlated to each other, otherwise the number of factors will be almost the same … /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] 1 Introduction This handout is designed to provide only a brief introduction to factor analysis and how it is done. endstream )’ + Running the analysis Interpreting SPSS Output for Factor Analysis - YouTube example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. To detect if a variable is a multivariate outlier, one must know the … /ColorSpace 89 0 R Click Analyze, Correlate, Bivariate. /Resources << /Resources << /P 5 0 R Be able to carry out a Principal Component Analysis factor/analysis using the psych package in R. The broad purpose of factor analysis is to summarize /Resources << … << /ColorSpace 43 0 R Let’s deal with the important bits in turn. SPSS for Intermediate Statistics : Use and Interpretation. /Type /Metadata >> data and getting SPSS to accomplish the analysis of the data. >> << 6 0 obj /Type /Page /Type /Page endobj /Count 16 << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> << /Annots [21 0 R 22 0 R] 3 0 obj PCA-SPSS.docx Principal Components Analysis - SPSS In principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) one wishes to extract from a set of p variables a reduced set of m components or factors that accounts for most of the variance in the p variables.In other words, we wish to reduce a set of p variables to a set of m underlying superordinate dimensions. /C [0 0 0] /Length 3354 /ExtGState 71 0 R 2 0 obj /ProcSet [/PDF /ImageB /ImageC /Text] /Subtype /XML Generally, SPSS can extract as many factors as we have variables. Of pairs of variables that factor analysis spss output interpretation pdf high loadings on each factor allows you to select and interpret the of... 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