Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) was a newspaper editor and journalist who went on to lead the American anti-lynching crusade. The Ida B. Wells-Barnett Museum is located at the Spires Bolling House in Holly Springs, Mississippi, where Wells-Barnett was born. Ida and Ferdinand had four children. She died of kidney failure on March 25, 1931, at age 68 in Chicago.  Wells, together with a delegation of members from Chicago, attended.  Having examined many accounts of lynchings due to the alleged "rape of White women", she concluded that Southerners cried rape as an excuse to hide their real reasons for lynchings: Black economic progress, which threatened White Southerners with competition, and White ideas of enforcing Black second-class status in the society. Ida B. Southern Horrors and The Red Record's documentation of lynchings captured the attention of Northerners who knew little about lynching or accepted the common explanation that Black men deserved this fate. ", May 7, 1913: Senate Bill 63 – State Senator Hugh Stewart Magill, Jr. (1868–1958), from, June 11, 1913: The House posed a stiffer challenge, right up to the day of the vote. In the 1890s, Wells documented lynching in the United States in articles and through her pamphlet called Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in all its Phases, investigating frequent claims of Whites that lynchings were reserved for Black criminals only. Ida B. Wells and The Memphis Diary of Ida B. ", Ida Bell Wells was born on the Bolling Farm near Holly Springs, Mississippi, July 16, 1862. ", Wells also dedicated a chapter in The Red Record to juxtapose the different positions that she and Willard held.  In 1889, she became editor and co-owner with J. L. Fleming of The Free Speech and Headlight, a Black-owned newspaper established by the Reverend Taylor Nightingale (1844–1922) and based at the Beale Street Baptist Church in Memphis. She won her case on December 24, 1884, when the local circuit court granted her a $500 award. Wells and Barnett had met in 1893, working together on a pamphlet protesting the lack of Black representation at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Miss Barnett helped edit her mother's autobiography, Crusade for Justice: the Autobiography of Ida B. Ida B. Wells-Barnett : Iola, Princess of the Press & Feminist Crusader for Equality and Justice By Kiilu Nyasha. 1), Ida B. Ida B. , In June 2020, during the George Floyd protests in Tennessee, protesters occupied the area outside the Tennessee State Capitol, re-dubbing it "Ida B. Wells, (1862-1931) teacher, journalist and anti-lynching activist.  To challenge what she viewed as problems for African Americans in Chicago, Wells started a political organization named Third Ward Women's Political Club in 1927. She was the eldest child of James Madison Wells (1840–1878) and Elizabeth "Lizzie" (Warrenton). Wells continued to be an activist throughout the remainder of her career. Wells", "Quakers Against Racism: Catherine Impey and the, "Re-Embodying Ida B. Ida B. Wells gained publicity in Memphis when she wrote a newspaper article for The Living Way, a Black church weekly, about her treatment on the train. , In August 2014, Wells was the subject of an episode of the BBC Radio 4 programme Great Lives, in which her work was championed by Baroness Oona King. She was active in women's rights and the women's suffrage movement, establishing several notable women's organizations. As a result of her two lecture tours in Britain, she received significant coverage in the British and American press. Wells: A Figure of Resistance in American Popular Culture", Frances Willard House Museum and Archives, "Women Subjects on United States Postage Stamps", "African American Subjects on United States Postage Stamps", "Truth-Telling: Frances Willard and Ida B. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (July 16, 1862–March 25, 1931), known for much of her public career as Ida B. She worked with national civil rights leaders to protest a major exhibition, she was active in the national women's club movement, and she ultimately ran for the Illinois State Senate. Wells Battled Jim Crow in Memphis", College of Fellows of the American Theatre, "8 – White Women and the Campaign Against Lynching: Frances Willard, Jane Addams, Jesse Daniel Ames", Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, The Reason Why the Colored American Is Not in the World's Columbian Exposition: The Afro-American Contribution to Columbian Literature, "Announcement of the 2020 Pulitzer Prize Winners – Special Citation: Ida B. Black economic progress was a contemporary issue in the South, and in many states Whites worked to suppress Black progress. CBN.com – Born July 16, 1862, in Holly Springs, Mississippi, Ida B. Wells-Barnett was a former slave who became a journalist and launched a virtual one-woman crusade against the vicious practice of lynching. Nightingale and, although he'd sold his interest to Wells and Fleming in 1891, assaulted him and forced him at gun point to sign a letter retracting the May 21 editorial. If Southern men are not careful, a conclusion might be reached which will be very damaging to the moral reputation of their women. Wells had been out of town, vacationing in New York; but never returned to Memphis. | May 13, 2020 4.8 out of 5 stars 98 She is an American Hero.  Over the course of a lifetime dedicated to combating prejudice and violence, and the fight for African-American equality, especially that of women, Wells arguably became the most famous Black woman in America..  The print is pasted on an embossed cabinet card that is light to the touch. Wells' as a prominent figure in Memphis's history by installing a statue in her memory. Wells was born 5 or 10 or 20 years earlier; we may not be telling this story.  The Red Record had far-reaching influence in the debate about lynching. In the eyes of the FBI, this made her a “dangerous negro agitator.” In the annals of history, it makes her an icon. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862 - 1931) By The Gale Group. She was the eldest of eight children. She documented lynching in the United States, showing that it was often used as a way to control or punish Blacks who competed with whytes, rather than being based on criminal acts by Blacks, as was usually claimed by whyte mobs. 91 likes. , In 2018, the National Memorial for Peace and Justice opened; it includes a reflection space dedicated to Wells, a selection of quotes by her, and a stone inscribed with her name. Ms. Wells was disappointed that not much information was written about her so she wrote two autobiographies before her death: The Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. 91 likes. , On March 5, 1892, a group of six White men including a sheriff's deputy took electric streetcars to the People's Grocery. "The colored race multiplies like the locusts of Egypt," she had said, and "the grog shop is its center of power. Wells was born enslaved in Holly Springs, Mississippi. Wells-Barnett lived a life worth living and died in 1931 in Chicago at the age of 68. On one fateful train ride from Memphis to Nashville, in May 1884, Wells reached a personal turning point.  In her hometown of Holly Springs, Mississippi, there is an Ida B. Wells-Barnett Museum in her honor that acts as a cultural center of African-American history. In Memphis, she hired an African-American attorney to sue the railroad. Her husband, Rev. The three men were arrested and jailed pending trial..  Wells also helped organize the National Afro-American Council, serving as the organization's first secretary. Wells Day in the State of Illinois. Family of Ida B. Wells-Barnett. If the Negroes themselves do not apply the remedy without delay it will be the duty of those whom he has attacked to tie the wretch who utters these calumnies to a stake at the intersection of Main and Madison Sts., brand him in the forehead with a hot iron and perform upon him a surgical operation with a pair of tailor's shears. , On May 21, 1892, Wells published an editorial in the Free Speech refuting what she called "that old threadbare lie that Negro men rape White women. Ida B. , Wells began writing her autobiography, Crusade for Justice (1928), but never finished the book; it would be posthumously published, edited by her daughter Alfreda Barnett Duster, in 1970, as Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells-Barnett explored these in detail in her The Red Record..  In 1914 she served as president of NERL's Chicago bureau. Born a slave in 1862, she first became prominent in the 1890's because she brought international attention to the lynching of African Americans in the south. Wells committed herself to the needs of those who did not have power. Ida B. " The Pulitzer Prize board announced that it would donate at least $50,000 in support of Wells' mission to recipients who would be announced at a later date. Ida B. This sort of close working relationship between a wife and husband was unusual at the time, as women often played more traditional domestic roles in a marriage. , Wells-Barnett explained that the defense of White women's honor allowed Southern White men to get away with murder by projecting their own history of sexual violence onto Black men. Interesting Facts about Ida B. She went to work and kept the rest of the family together with the help of her grandmother. Moss's store did well and competed with a White-owned grocery store across the street, Barrett's Grocery, owned by William Russell Barrett (1854–1920). Ida B. Wells is the 25th African-American entry – and fourth woman African American – on a U.S. postage stamp. Here is what Michelle, Daniel and David Duster, the great-great grandchildren of Ida B. But Ida B Wells was a badass before and after she was married-with-children.  However, in her autobiography, Wells stated that Du Bois deliberately excluded her from the list. The store was located in a South Memphis neighborhood nicknamed "The Curve". Like Wells, he spoke widely against lynchings and for the civil rights of African Americans. t is with no pleasure that I have dipped my hands in the corruption here exposed ... Somebody must show that the Afro-American race is more sinned against than sinning, and it seems to have fallen upon me to do so. For webquest or practice, print a copy of this quiz at the Ida B. Ida was one of the original founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). A White mob destroyed her newspaper office and presses as her investigative reporting was carried nationally in Black-owned newspapers. Wells (5 min. , Despite Wells-Barnett's attempt to garner support among White Americans against lynching, she believed that her campaign could not overturn the economic interests Whites had in using lynching as an instrument to maintain Southern order and discourage Black economic ventures. Once slavery ended, Ida attended Shaw University (now Rust College) along with her mother who attended school long enough to learn how to read the Bible. Wells, Second Edition (Negro American Biographies and Autobiographies) by Ida B. Wells . To keep her younger siblings together as a family, she found work as a teacher in a Black elementary school in Holly Springs. Wells: An Intimate Portrait of the Activist as a Young Woman (which was actually later published and edited by her daughter). Wells: An Intimate Portrait of the Activist as a Young Woman (which was actually later published and edited by her daughter). Journalist. In 2020, she won a Pulitzer Prize. The safety of women, of childhood, of the home is menaced in a thousand localities, so that men dare not go beyond the sight of their own roof tree. 1971 - 2000 Share This Page. © 1996-2015 National Geographic Society, © 2015- It took three men to eject her from her seat and one received a painful hand bite in the process. , On March 8, 2018, The New York Times published a belated obituary for her, in a series marking International Women's Day and entitled "Overlooked" that set out to acknowledge that, since 1851, its obituary pages had been dominated by White men, while notable women – including Wells – had been ignored. Wells] is allowed to live and utter such loathsome and repulsive calumnies is a volume of evidence as to the wonderful patience of Southern Whites. , During World War I, the U.S. government placed Wells under surveillance, labeling her a dangerous "race agitator".  The phrase, instrument of vengeance was also referenced in the 1831 work, The Confessions of Nat Turner, published by Thomas Ruffin Gray, wherein Turner explains how he saw the divine signs – God's will to eradicate the evil of slavery – that (a) vindicated him as an instrument of vengeance and (b) established his prophetic status. Ferdinand Lee Barnett, who lived in Chicago, was a prominent attorney, civil rights activist, and journalist. She helped in the founding of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Threats, wells was inducted into the National Association of Colored people ( NAACP ) concentrated energy... 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